The following is an
essay by Benjamin Franklin on the game of chess. The essay is
entitled The Morals of Chess.
THE GAME OF CHESS is not merely an idle
amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful
in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened
by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life
is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and
competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there
is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree,
the effect of prudence, or the want of it. By playing at Chess
then, we may learn:
1st, Foresight, which looks a little into
futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action;
for it is continually occurring to the player, "If I move
this Piece, what will be the advantage or disadvantage of my
new situation? What use can my adversary make of it to annoy
me? What other moves can I make to support it, and to defend
myself from his attacks?"
2d, Circumspection, which surveys the whole
Chess-board, or scene of action: - the relation of the several
Pieces, and their situations; the dangers they are repeatedly
exposed to; the several possibilities of their aiding each other;
the probabilities that the adversary may make this or that move,
and attack this or that Piece; and what different means can be
used to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequences against him.
3d, Caution, not to make our moves too
hastily. This habit is best acquired by observing strictly the
laws of the game; such as, if you touch a Piece, you must move
it somewhere; if you set it down, you must let it stand.
Therefore, it would be the better way to
observe these rules, as the game becomes thereby more the image
of human life, and particularly of war; in which if you have
incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous position,
you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops,
and place them more securely, but you must abide by all the consequences
of your rashness.
And lastly, We learn by Chess the habit
of not being discouraged by present bad appearances in the state
of our affairs; the habit of hoping for a favourable chance,
and that of persevering in the search of resources. The game
is so full of events, there is such a variety of turns init,
the fortune of it is so subject to vicissitudes, and one so frequently,
after contemplation, discovers the means of extricating one's
self from a supposed insurmountable difficulty, that one is encouraged
to continue the contest to the last, in hopes of victory from
our skill; or, at least, from the negligence of our adversary:
and whoever considers, what in Chess he often sees instances
of, that success is apt to produce presumption and its consequent
inattention, by which more is afterwards lost than was gained
by the preceding advantage, while misfortunes produce more care
and attention, by which the loss may be recovered, will learn
not to be too much discouraged by any present successes of his
adversary, nor to despair of final good fortune upon every little
check he receives in the pursuit of it.
That we may therefore, be induced more
frequently to choose this beneficial amusement in preference
to others, which are not attended with the same advantages, every
circumstance that may increase the pleasure of it should be regarded;
and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that
in any way may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary
to the immediate intention of both the parties, which is, to
pass the time agreeable.
1st, Therefore, if it is agreed to play
according to the strict rules, then those rules are to be strictly
observed by both parties; and should not be insisted upon for
one side, while deviated from by the other: for this is not equitable.
2d, If it is agreed not to observe the
rules exactly, but one party demands indulgences, he should then
be as willing to allow them to the other.
3d, No false move should ever be made to
extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage;
for there can be no pleasure in playing with a man once detected
in such unfair practice.
4th, If your adversary is long in playing,
you ought not to hurry him, or express any uneasiness at his
delay; not even by looking at your watch, or taking up a book
to read: you should not sing, nor whistle, nor make a tapping
with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table,
nor do anything that may distract his attention: for all these
displease, and they do not prove your skill in playing, but your
craftiness and your rudeness.
5th, You ought not to endeavour to amuse
and deceive your adversary by pretending to have made bad moves;
and saying you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure
and careless, and inattentive to your schemes; for this is fraud
and deceit, not skill in the game of Chess.
6th, You must not, when you have gained
a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expressions, nor show
too much of the pleasure you feel; but endeavour to console your
adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with himself by every
kind and civil expression that may be used with truth; such as,
you understand the game better than I, but you are a little inattentive,
or, you play too fast; or, you had the best of the game, but
something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it
in my favour.
7th, If you are a spectator, while others
play, observe the most perfect silence: for if you give advice,
you offend both the parties: him against whom you give it, because
it may cause him to lose the game: him in whose favour you give
it, because, though it be good, and he folllow it, he loses the
pleasure he might have had, if you had permitted him to think
till it occurred to himself. Even after a move or moves, you
must not, by replacing the Pieces, show how they might have been
placed better; for that displeases, and might occasion disputes
or doubts about their true situation.
All talking to the players lessens or diverts
their attention; and is, therefore, unpleasing; nor should you
give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or
motion; if you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator.
If you desire to exercise or show your
judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity,
not in criticising or meddling with, or counselling the play
Lastly, If the game is not to be played
rigorously, according to the rules before mentioned, then moderate
your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with
one over yourself.
Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered
by his unskilfulness or inattention; but point out to him kindly,
that by such a move he places or leaves a Piece en prise unsupported;
that by another, he will put his King into a dangerous situation,
By this general civility (so opposite to
the unfairness before forbidden) you may happen indeed to lose
the game; but you will win what is better, his esteem, his respect,
and his affection; together with the silent approbation and the
good will of the spectators.
When a vanquished player is guilty of an
untruth to cover his disgrace, as "I have not played so
long, - his method of opening the game confused me, - the men
were of an unusual size," &c all such apologies, (to
call them no worse) must lower him in a wise person's eyes, both
as a man and a Chess-player; and who will not suspect that he
who shelters himself under such untruths in trifling matters,
is no very sturdy moralist in things of greater consequence,
where his fame and honour are at stake? A man of proper pride
would scorn to account for his being beaten by one of these excuses,
even were it true; because they have all so much the appearance,
at the moment, of being untrue.