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Scipio Africanus Major 234?-183 B.C., a Roman general, was the conqueror of HANNIBAL in the PUNIC WARS. In the Second Punic War, Scipio conquered Spain and ended the war by defeating Hannibal at Zama (202) in Africa. He returned home in triumph and retired from public life; he was named Africanus after the country he conquered. Scipio Africanus Minor, c.185-129 B.C., Roman general, was the destroyer of CARTHAGE. He was adopted by the eldest son of Scipio Africanus Major and earned a great reputation as a patron of Greek literature and of Roman writers, notably TERENCE and Laelius, and he was the lifelong friend of POLYBIUS, his protégé. As consul (147) he went to Africa and terminated the Third Punic War with the capture and destruction of Carthage.

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